There’s nothing you or anything else can do to speed up or slow down time or increase or decrease age. Of the two, it is always the dependent variable whose variation is being studied, by altering inputs, also known as regressors in a statistical context. its time for those who benefited from a housing boom to pay up In an experiment, any variable that can be attributed a value without attributing a value to any other variable is called an independent variable. Models and experiments test the effects that the independent variables have on the dependent variables.

Can you identify the independent and dependent variables for each of the four scenarios below? The answers are at the bottom of the guide for you to check your work. If you’re still having a hard time understanding the relationship between independent and dependent variable, it might help to see them in action. Below are overviews of three experiments, each with their independent and dependent variables identified. It can be practically anything, such as objects, amounts of time, feelings, events, or ideas.

If you’re studying how people feel about different television shows, the variables in that experiment are television shows and feelings. If you’re studying how different types of fertilizer affect how tall plants grow, the variables are type of fertilizer and plant height. Here are some examples of research questions and corresponding independent and dependent variables. Random assignment helps you control participant characteristics, so that they don’t affect your experimental results. This helps you to have confidence that your dependent variable results come solely from the independent variable manipulation.

- However, since investigators didn’t determine or specify which individuals would be men and which would be women (!), it is not considered to be an active independent variable.
- Then, you select an appropriate statistical test to test your hypothesis.
- Models and experiments test the effects that the independent variables have on the dependent variables.
- The independent variable is usually applied at different levels to see how the outcomes differ.

When we create a graph, the independent variable will go on the x-axis and the dependent variable will go on the y-axis. Changing the plant growth rate affects the value of the amount of water. Changing the amount of water affects the value of the plant growth rate.

## Grammar Checker

A doctor changes the dose of a particular medicine to see how it affects the blood pressure of a patient. Based on your results, you note that the placebo and low-dose groups show little difference in blood pressure, while the high-dose group sees substantial improvements. It’s not possible to randomly assign these to participants, since these are characteristics of already existing groups. Instead, you can create a research design where you compare the outcomes of groups of participants with characteristics.

There’s nothing you or anything else can do to speed up or slow down time or increase or decrease age. The slope of a line is a value that describes the rate of change between the independent and dependent variables. The slope tells us how the dependent variable (y) changes for every one unit increase in the independent (x) variable, on average. The y-intercept is used to describe the dependent variable when the independent variable equals zero.

- This is different from the “control variable,” which is variable that is held constant so it won’t influence the outcome of the experiment.
- The y-intercept is used to describe the dependent variable when the independent variable equals zero.
- In both math and science, dependent and independent variables can be plotted on the x and y axes of a graph.
- It can be practically anything, such as objects, amounts of time, feelings, events, or ideas.
- The slope of a line is a value that describes the rate of change between the independent and dependent variables.

Scoring well on standardized tests is an important part of having a strong college application. You want to find out how blood sugar levels are affected by drinking diet soda and regular soda, so you conduct an experiment. If you want to know more about statistics, methodology, or research bias, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples. You plot bars for each treatment group before and after the treatment to show the difference in blood pressure. Statology is a site that makes learning statistics easy by explaining topics in simple and straightforward ways. A marketer changes the amount of money they spend on advertisements to see how it affects total sales.

## Identifying independent vs. dependent variables

Boyle was then able to devise his equation based on his observations of the independent and dependent variables. The dependent variables are the things that the scientist focuses his or her observations on to see how they respond to the change made to the independent variable. In statistics, the most often used word is ‘variable’ which refers to a characteristic that contains the value, which may vary from one entity to another. It is similar to the variables used in other disciplines like science and mathematics. The two most common types of variable are the dependent variable and independent variable. A variable is said to be independent, whose change influence another variable, while if the variable is dependent, it will change in response to the change in some other variable.

## Related Differences

The difference is that the value of the independent variable is controlled by the experimenter, while the value of the dependent variable only changes in response to the independent variable. Try growing some sunflowers and see how different factors affect their growth. For example, say you have ten sunflower seedlings, and you decide to give each a different amount of water each day to see if that affects their growth.

## Independent variable vs dependent variable

The independent variable is the drug, while patient blood pressure is the dependent variable. In some ways, this experiment resembles the one with breakfast and test scores. However, when comparing two different treatments, such as drug A and drug B, it’s usual to add another variable, called the control variable. The control variable, which in this case is a placebo that contains the same inactive ingredients as the drugs, makes it possible to tell whether either drug actually affects blood pressure. The confounding variables are differences between groups other than the independent variables. These variables interfere with assessment of the effects of the independent variable because they, in addition to the independent variable, potentially affect the dependent variable.

Find the equation that expresses the total cost in terms of the number of hours required to complete the job. Emma’s Extreme Sports hires hang-gliding instructors and pays them a fee of $50 per class as well as $20 per student in the class. The total cost Emma pays depends on the number of students in a class.

It’s what changes as a result of the changes to the independent variable. As another example, say you want to know whether or not eating breakfast affects student test scores. The factor under the experimenter’s control is the presence or absence of breakfast, so you know it is the independent variable. The experiment measures test scores of students who ate breakfast versus those who did not. Theoretically, the test results depend on breakfast, so the test results are the dependent variable. Note that test scores are the dependent variable, even if it turns out there is no relationship between scores and breakfast.

## Linear Equations

You measure the math skills of all participants using a standardized test and check whether they differ based on room temperature. An example is provided by the analysis of trend in sea level by Woodworth (1987). Here the dependent variable (and variable of most interest) was the annual mean sea level at a given location for which a series of yearly values were available. Use was made of a covariate consisting of yearly values of annual mean atmospheric pressure at sea level. The results showed that inclusion of the covariate allowed improved estimates of the trend against time to be obtained, compared to analyses which omitted the covariate.